Modeling Tools Navigation
PPPL also has experience with the 3D particle-in-cell code WARP. Warp is a particle-in-cell (PIC) framework designed to simulate high current particle beams and plasmas, incorporating a variety of integrated physics models and extensive diagnostics [1-3]. For the self-field calculation, there are a variety of explicit and implicit electrostatic models and explicit electromagnetic models. With the electrostatic models, arbitrary conductor geometry can be included and is resolved to second order using the cut-cell technique. All of the field models allow mesh refinement for improved resolution and increased efficiency. WARP includes models for elastic and inelastic collisions, including ionization, stripping and charge-exchange and particle/surface interactions, gas desorption, and ion and electron emission. WARP runs on massively parallel computers, using 1, 2, or 3 - dimensional domain decomposition, and scales well on hundreds to many thousands of processors, depending on the application. Fully kinetic plasma simulations have been carried out to examine beam-plasma interactions, showing their effects of beam performance on a target . Discharge simulations were also carried out using WARP .
 David P. Grote and Alex Friedman, “The WARP Code: Modeling High-Intensity Ion Beams”, AIP Conference Proceedings 749, 55 (2005); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1893366
 A. Friedman, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, D. P. Grote, S. M. Lund, W. M. Sharp, A Faltens, E. Henestroza, J. –Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, M. A. Leitner, B. G. Logan, J.-L. Vay, W. L Waldron, R. C. Davidson, M. Dorf, E. P. Gilson, and I. D. Kaganovich, “Beam Dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II – a Novel Pulse-Compressing Ion Accelerator”, Physics of Plasmas 17, 056704 (2010).
 D. Levko, Ya. E. Krasik, V. Vekselman, and I. Haber, “Two-dimensional model of orificed micro-hollow cathode discharge for space application”, Physics of Plasmas 20, 083512 (2013); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4818969